“Time will be the fire we burn in.” And even though we may be unable to quench its unrelenting flame, scientists have attempted to divert its path by isolating small enclosures where time slows to some crawl. Within these chambers the frenetic Brownian dance gets to be a chaperoned waltz, as temperatures approach absolute zero. The interior environment of Lng vehicle cylinder is really a world apart, a reminder of the ultimate heat-death that has to befall our universe in the eons to come.
For people who aim to discover truths in regards to the workings of the cell, holding back the floodgates of time is a problem of significant proportions. Scientists are generally enthusiastic about very specific cell properties that transpire at critical junctions in the life of a cell. Holding these processes at bay while their properties can be exploited is similar to the trouble of catching one’s shadow.
Cryogenic freezing of cells has been used as you solution to the situation in the slow burn. By reducing the temperatures of samples for the glass transition phase of -133°C, the temperature in which all metabolic activity involves a halt, scientists can seclude moments in time, returning time and again to investigate that instant of all time.
Unsurprisingly, cryogenics has grown to be an important industry that creates customized products for up to every conceivable purpose. From small tabletop apparatus to industrial-scale liquifiers, the market in cryogenics provides mechanical freezers, packing containers, and dewars in every size, shape, and configuration imaginable. With such numerous products to choose from knowledge of those are most effective may elude the average consumer. So that you can provide an introduction to the most important producers of cryogenic laboratory supplies several manufacturers will likely be profiled in this article.
Ultra-low lab freezers are one of those particular things that most people never think about until they quit working. Built to run for several years without interruption in service, lab freezers are definitely the quiet sentinels of the laboratory, keeping a vigilant watch within the researcher’s most prized possessions. Most scientists attempt to avoid the idea of what might happen if their freezer failed, or they attempt to erase the memory during the day in the event it did. A career’s worth of samples could be lost in just one afternoon– years of careful collecting and cataloging reduced to mere puddles on the ground. Although this kind of scenario looms ominously inside the periphery for each researcher’s consciousness, not many are prepared for the day whenever it actually occurs. Manufacturers of ultra-low lab freezers have taken great pains to make sure that power failures and refrigerant leaks will never compromise one’s samples. They build machines that usually are meant to be forgotten.
MMR Technologies may be the only company which uses the Kleemenko cooling cycle in its refrigerators. Although the gas industry has utilized this system for many years, MMR Technologies was the first company to patent the technology and adapt it for very small, lightweight, and portable freezing systems.
How the Kleemenko cycle works is that a combination of compressed gas and liquid is passed down a countercurrent exchanger which is permitted to expand using a capillary or throttling valve. Cooling occurs upon expansion, and the cool gas passes support the temperature exchanger, precooling the incoming high-pressure gas. One or more liquid-vapor separators may be incorporated in the cycle to ensure the increase of the liquid enables you to precool the vapor (W.A. Little., Presented at ICEC17, Bournemouth, U.K.,July 14-17 1998)
The BIO 120 is really a zero-maintenance, low-power-consumption Kleemenko refrigerator that is ideal for storing frozen tissue, cell cultures, organs, and the entire body parts. The system allows the scientist to warm and cool samples uniformly without shocking them, and since it provides an inside power source you can use it for your transportation of samples from storage facility to research laboratory. Robert Paugh, product manager for MMR Technologies, was insistent on the requirement for controlled temperature ramping.
“As a user you would like to be aware of minimum temperature and just how it gets there,” said Paugh. MMR Technologies’ enhanced control systems and printed thermal record of cooling makes sure that uniform temperatures have been maintained through the entire cooling process.
Kelvinator Scientific, and that is a subsidiary of Frigidaire, provides freezer units for laboratories and pharmacies that are equipped for biological samples at temperatures as a result of -86°C. At temperatures this low animal and plant viruses, bacteria, spores, and bacteriophages could be preserved for longer periods. Locking lids are given so that you can protect samples from accidental contact with ambient temperatures. Adjustable shelving, pullout drawers, and drawer partition inserts are of help for separating different experiments.
NuAire, Inc. credits much of its ultralow freezing capabilities to its heavy-gauge galvanized steel cabinets. The heat-conducting quality on this material reduces stress on compressors allowing the units to run longer and colder than would certainly be possible. Maintaining temperatures at -152°C the NuAire ultralow freezer can perform holding samples beneath the crystallization point.
In line with the Clean Air Act of 1990 for systems using HCFC/HFC refrigerants, NuAire also works with a special mixture of azeotropic gases that are non-flammable and let on-site recycling. In addition, a built in timer cycles the low stage compressor every twenty four hours, turning them back in order that the capillary tubing will probably be cleared of ice formation.
So-Low Environmental Equipment Co. includes a long tradition of earning ultralow freezers for laboratory applications. In reality, with 4 decades of expertise under its belt, So-Low is one of the oldest manufacturers of ultralow temperature freezers in the commercial. Once the Montreal Protocol started the phase away from CFC refrigerants in 1987, So-Low was among the first to use Dupont Suva 95, the latest CFC-free refrigerant that runs cooler with less pressure than CFCs. In addition to its investigation of eco friendly refrigerants, So-Low also has developed a revolutionary compressor that is certainly designed exclusively for its ultralow freezers.
Forma Scientific offers both mechanical and liquid nitrogen storage systems for preserving samples at ultralow temperatures. The mechanical freezers preserve specimens right down to -86°C, while Forma’s liquid nitrogen freezers store samples at -133°C. Unlike its competitors’ liquid nitrogen freezers, however, Forma provides square cross-section units as an alternative to the usual cylindrical containers. Each one of these cabinets is constructed of cold-rolled steel. Forma’s counterbalanced lids provide easy access, an optional thermal data printer continuously documents all operational functions, along with a storage system adjusts to accommodate a range of tube sizes. Forma offers a patented double door unit that separates long-term from everyday storage.
Revco is probably the largest manufacturers of laboratory freezers using more than 50 years of expertise in the industry. Revco’s Elite, Value, and Ultima mechanical freezers sustain temperatures from -10°C to as little as -120°C without CFC refrigerants and are available in chest, upright, and tabletop models. Its sophisticated Ultima freezers offer automatic electronic systems that constantly adjust conditions to the internal and external environment, correcting for subtle fluctuations in ambient temperature, excessive loading with warm samples, and dirty filters. In addition, it carries a scrubbing cycle that removes vaporized lubricating oil through the evaporating coils.
Sanyo has become manufacturing laboratory and medical freezers more than 20 years, starting with its production of the 1st -40°C chest freezer in 1974. Sanyo duplicated this achievement with the growth of the initial -152°C ultralow temperature freezer in 1991 and additional demonstrated its position by becoming the first manufacturer to provide a complete array of CFC-free medical freezers. Today, Sanyo offers one of many largest selections of ultralow temperature lab freezers on the market today. Sanyo’s upright and chest freezers are designed for utilize in preserving cells, bacteria, spores, pollen, sperm, protozoa, and blood components for academic and industrial research.
The expression dewar, originally used on double walled glass vacuum flasks, is currently put on an array of insulated vessels intended for maintenance of samples in liquid nitrogen. Based on their size, dewars usually rest on the floor or take a seat on tabletops where samples can be simply accessed. As a result of quality of insulation materials, some dewars have maintained critical temperatures for as long as 1 year without being regenerated with liquid nitrogen. The normal thermal wall consists of an aluminum or steel sandwich loaded with polyurethane. The dimensions and configuration of dewars vary to such an extent that lots of companies build custom dewars to order. A number of these companies and their products are reviewed inside the following section.
From Alaskan salmon eggs to embryos from Idaho’s chicken farms, MVE has made laboratory freezers for numerous applications. Obviously, animal breeders are only a small portion of its customers. Blood and cell storage in addition to organ shipment are an equally large part of MVE’s business with medical and pharmaceutical applications representing the easiest-growing part of the industry for the company’s products.
MVE was the very first company to build up biological freezers able to maintaining a -190°C environment to get a full year without refilling with nitrogen. Since this time MVE has released the full line of XLC series liquid and vapor-phase freezers. The XLC liquid nitrogen freezers are designed for handling up to 36,000 vials at temperatures as little as -195.8°C. The vapor-phase freezers are suitable for cells that may be stored at -125°C but can become damaged or discolored at critical temperatures achieved by liquid nitrogen freezers. The vapor-phase freezers may also be ideal for storing hazardous materials that may cross-communicate in the liquid medium, including contaminated-blood bags which can be prone to break open.
Quantum Technology is a worldwide manufacturer and supplier of laboratory freezers with offices in the usa and Germany. Its product line includes anything from compressors and temperature sensors to gas wells and vacuum shrouds.
In accordance with Sean Wolf, product manager for Quantum Technology, a great way his company has managed to remain competitive is as simple as offering on-site service and warranty repair. Another major selling point of Quantum’s refrigeration systems is that they can be custom-built.
Among Quantum Technology’s most favored products is a helium recovery system. Although liquid helium is only $4 or $5 per liter, in lots of countries outside of The United States and Europe, the expense of purchasing helium is a concern of concern. That is amongst the factors why Quantum Technology makes an efficient two-stage and three-stage closed-cycle refrigerator when the helium is retained inside the system. The helium with this refrigerator is reliquified for use over and over.
Lab-Line Instruments, designer and manufacturer of dewars for scientific research and recently acquired subsidiary of Barnstead Thermolyne, provides a Thermo-Flask collection of products that include wide-mouth flasks, insulated Thermo-Cups, stainless Thermo-Flasks, and enameled steel Thermo-Flasks. Twenty-six different types are offered with capacities from 200 cc to 10 liters, and each of these models is available by using a 24-month warranty. Other special features of the Thermo-Flask type of products include vented lids in order to avoid pressure build-up, fold-down handles, and borosilicate inner vessels evacuated to provide coolant retention for samples kept in liquid nitrogen or solid CO2.
Barnstead Thermolyne manufactures the Bio-Cane and Locator Plus cryogenic storage systems, that are distributed by numerous companies throughout america. The Bio-Cane systems can be purchased in five sizes and offer features including super vacuum insulation, ampule cans, a polycarbonate lid, and color-coded canisters for inventory identification. The Locator Plus storage systems can be bought in four sizes and also have capacities as high as 6,000 vials. As well as some of the standard features contained in the Bio-Cane, the Locator provides hanging racks having a gridded box design, audible and visual alarms that warn of low-level conditions, plus an ultrasonic liquid level monitor that eliminates connection with liquid nitrogen and consequently reduces evaporation.
Pope Scientific makes many different traditional dewar flasks in “cylindrical,” “low form shallow,” and “spherical” styles. All Pope dewars are manufactured from borosilicate glass paid by a protective mesh, and each wide-mouth model has a vented polyethylene stopper to lower evaporation. Wide-mouth dewars can be jacketed in aluminum casing for more safety.
Pope Scientific’s narrow-mouth or “constricted-neck” dewars are suitable for temporary storage or transfer applications with holding times above 14 days. Every one of these units come built with the lowest-evaporation stopper, a fully shielded evacuation tip, a weighted base, and protective mesh. Alternatives for these instruments include fiberglass caddies for carrying or decanting.
Taylor-Wharton International makes the K Series, XT (Extended Time), HC (High Capacity), and RS (Rack System) dewars which allow the researcher to store large amounts of semen, embryos, and biological samples at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Every one of these units is complemented by their own inventory control system, which is made to maximize the amount of vials that can be safely arranged into a canister-type storage device. By either immersing samples in liquid nitrogen or suspending them in nitrogen vapor, vials could be maintained at temperatures of -196° C.
Cryogenic Tubes are the most frequently used and least considered implements in the researcher’s tool box. Bags of tubes are stuffed into corners and forgotten until they mysteriously run out one day. Then its time to look shopping. Making decisions about buying cryogenic tubes is usually guided by three primary issues, the initial of which concerns the issue of whether they are externally or internally threaded. Advocates of externally threaded vials suggest that material is trapped inside the threads of internally threaded vials, while proponents of the internally threaded sort believe that externally threaded vials tend to be more easily contaminated by accidental contact. Although research has been conducted so as to confirm or refute these claims, these have not been conclusive, and also the debate goes on.
An additional consideration which comes into consideration when buying cryogenic tubes will be the material through which they can be constructed. While plastic vials are, perhaps, stronger than glass, they take longer to warm which may negatively affect the viability of some cells. Some plastic tubes can be contaminated with releasing fluids through the molding process. However, releasing fluids can be removed with all the care, and some brands like Axygen are switching to new polished molds that do not require the usage of releasing fluids. Glass, on the flip side, warms rapidly but can also be at the mercy of fracture due to microchannels which may form in the glass, causing leakage of sample contents, or perhaps violent explosions. Plastic vials will also be vulnerable to nitrogen penetration but the potential of explosion will not be as great.
Gasketing has additionally been an issue of some contention with this industry. Many cryovials have a washer that keeps the internal pressure of your vial from expelling the tube’s contents after it is warmed to ambient conditions. The rapid expansion of gas throughout the tube is enough to force cells and fluid from the lids of numerous non-gasketed cryotubes. Silicon is normally preferred because the best material for insulating caps against leakage. Although rubber can also be used, it features a tendency to lose its elasticity when dropped to freezing temperatures, a challenge which had been demonstrated once the “O” rings in the space shuttle Challenger failed.
Simport Plastics, headquartered in Quebec, gives a large selection of cryotubes and microcentrifuge tubes which you can use at temperatures as low as -190°C. Created for handling biological samples under freezing conditions for prolonged periods, its Cryovials™ come equipped with attached leak proof caps that comprise of a dual lip and a silicon washer. A particular ridge on each cap makes handling easier, leading to one-hand aseptic technique, and color-coded cap inserts together with white marking areas make each vial easily identifiable.
Evergreen Scientific manufactures the CryoSure® brand of vials for storing cell cultures, blood/serum specimens, sperm, and other biological fluids at vapor-phase liquid nitrogen temperatures (-195°C). CryoSure vials can be purchased in 1. ml, 1.5 ml, and 3.5 ml sizes and come in round-bottom and freestanding configurations.
Evergreen also offers a wide selection of microcentrifuge tubes that range in capacities from 250 µ l to 2. ml. Some examples are polypropylene tubes, which may be used in combination with solvents, alcohols, chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and ketones. These tubes are sterilized using gamma radiation and therefore are pressure tested within a vacuum chamber to ensure the longevity of its double-sealing screw caps.
Evergreen has recently developed a new microcentrifuge tube, in cooperation with Washington University Lipid Research Center, to be used in lipid fractionation studies. It is actually a 1.5 ml polystyrene tube having an 11 mm high-density polyethylene cap. One of the outstanding options that come with this tube is it is entirely transparent.
Nalgene® and Nunc™ cryogenic vials include a selection of externally and internally threaded vials from 1. to 5. ml capacities that happen to be silicone gasketed and guaranteed to use in the centrifuge. The Nalgene 5000 series vials feature graduations and are certified to get sterile, noncytotoxic and nonpyrogenic, while the System 100 vials are sure to be leakproof within a microcentrifuge as much as 8,000 g and during shipment and transport. However, the organization warns that cryotubes improperly sealed in liquid phase can lead to an explosion or biohazard release. Nalgene and Nunc have given CryoFlex Tubing to avert this contingency.
Wheaton Science Products makes tubes and flasks for up to every eventuality. From serum bottles to mobile phase reservoirs, it has developed a substantial catalog of items for handling liquid samples. Wheaton’s Cryules® can be purchased in both plastic and glass. The glass Cryule is manufactured out of Wheaton-33° low extractable glass that may be hermetically sealed. They are ideal to the preservation of biological materials with liquid nitrogen at low temperatures. Wheaton’s plastic Cryules are autoclavable and, like every one of the glass Cryules, can withstand temperatures between -196°C and 121°C. Wheaton Vacules are vials that happen to be constructed for lyophilization and freeze-drying. Their heavy-wall construction ensures they are exceptionally durable, and they are often flame sealed or stored using a range of stoppers and caps.
Corning Incorporated Science Products Division makes a number of polypropylene vials that are equipped for use at temperatures to -196°C. These come provided with a variety of features including color-coded caps, silicon and rubber washers for secure sealing of contents, and simple-to-read graduations for partial volumes. Self-standing and locking features are available with selected styles. Each one of Corning’s vials are supplied sterile and certified as nonpyrogenic.
Axygen Scientific Inc. makes microcentrifuge and screw-cap tubes for storing samples at subfreezing temperatures which are made with 99.9 percent pure polypropylene without mineral fillers or chemical toxins. Foreign substances are added limited to the request from the customer, and Axygen’s colorants contain no metallic ions such as iron, chromium, or nickel which can be typical constituents of dyes. Each of the company’s vials is designed to snap closed within a locked position for centrifugation, and special piercing ports have the insertion of syringes easier for collecting samples. Axygen’s “O” ring closure system incorporates a patent-pending alignment system that guarantees that the microtube is aligned within the centrifuge rotor to be re-spun without disturbing the pelletized sediment.
Sarstedt Inc. has an extensive catalog of microcentrifuge tubes that are appropriate for both freezing at ultralow temperatures and centrifugation that could come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and colours. An individual has a choice of choosing from a variety of externally threaded microtubes with attached or enclosed screw caps that may be colored for identification. All Sarstedt’s tubes are sterile, as well as the polypropylene material from which they may be constructed enables them to endure subfreezing temperatures and also temperatures and pressures in an autoclave. Among the areas that Sarstedt has paid particular focus to in developing its line of products is the necessity for cryogenic vials which contain reaction buffers and enzymes for PCR applications.
Stockwell Scientific manufacturers CRYO-LOK® Cryogenic Vials and screw- cap microcentrifuge tubes for storage and transport at ultralow temperatures. These range in capacity from .5 ml to 3.5 ml and are available in conical and skirted configurations. Stockwell’s microcentrifuge tubes may be exposed to a centrifugal force of 20,000 g and all of its O-ring sealed tubes has become sterilized.
Storage inventory systems are a critical part of any long term protocol for cryogenic preservation. Once cryogenic vials are stored at subfreezing temperatures they might undergo changes which make them tough to keep trace. Labels can become brittle, breaking and separating from vials, and improperly stored tubes may be dropped into liquid nitrogen making retrieval difficult and costly. One of the more popular options for containing samples is the canister and cane. Using this technique, several vials are enclosed within a long aluminum shaft that is certainly submerged within liquid nitrogen. The canes can be easily manipulated for small sample volumes and protect vials from damage that could occur from bumping or agitation. For greater storage capacities, however, the drawer system is usually preferred. Although drawer systems usually expose more samples to warming during exchange, the accessibility from the system reduces exposure a chance to ambient temperatures leading to less evaporation from the freezer, and also lessens the researcher’s contact with potentially harmful cryogens.
Forma Scientific makes rack inventory systems for liquid-phase and vapor-phase storage. These racks are made to optimize the volume of storage space afforded by Forma’s liquid nitrogen containers. The standard inventory configuration is actually a cardboard or stainless-steel construction arranged into arrowhead or square designs. Vertical inventory systems let the user to set up approximately 82 racks at maximum density.
TetraLink International concentrates on making storage boxes and rack systems for cryogenic storage. Designed for the widest possible applicability, its freezer storage systems can be purchased in a variety of sizes, shapes, and colours to match nearly every freezer. Clear lids allow contents to become viewed without opening the containers, and they are often adjusted in certain models to support tubes of varying heights. Round holes provide spacing with clearance for snap-seal and safe-lock caps. TetraLink’s Racksys storage system uses sliding drawers that contain storage racks for holding up to 267 microtubes. These drawers could be installed in any upright freezer or refrigerator.
Nalgene and Nunc storage systems comprise a series of plastic or chipboard containers for microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials. These are generally keyed to stop misalignment and supply temperature resistance from -196°C to 121°C.
Nalgene® CryoBox Racks provide stainless-steel retainer systems compatible with all Nalgene and Nunc storage boxes. They feature vertical and horizontal storage for boxes that maintain each box separately for simple retrieval.
National Labnet provides freezer racks and storage boxes for the increasing assortment of sample containers. As high-throughput experiments require greater reserves of reagents, Cryogenic ISO Tank Container has responded with boxes and racks that happen to be constructed for numerous samples of both well plates and cryovials. They have also introduced boxes with telescoping lids so that you can satisfy requirements for single box containers with vials of differing sizes.
Custom Biogenic Systems is among the largest manufacturers of rack systems for cryogenic storage containers. Actually, a lot of its goods are sold as standard accessories with several of the major producers of laboratory freezers. Its pie-shaped racks are built from stainless steel and can include a selection of cardboard, aluminum, or steel boxes with 1/2 inch or 5/8″ cell dividers. These systems are available as individual units or as complete racks for use in vapor- phase or liquid-phase storage.
Most likely, the cryogenic products one buys today is definitely the same ones which will be used for a long time. A purchase made today may last for ten years. Essentially, researchers buying CNG Trailer are not only buying products on their own, they are buying for his or her successors. The consumer must look into what might 46dexkpky over the course of years if their samples become degraded or contaminated as a result of improper storage. A little money that had been saved in the beginning by scrimping on vials or freezers might not seem like the best trade off when valuable samples are lost. Inspite of the safeguards integrated to the majority of these devices many product managers recommend making regular maintenance on the products a high priority. Appointing a permanent position that is mainly responsible for the cryogenic safety from the laboratory’s biological collection is among the guidelines on how to assure the integrity of those samples.